What is the Difference Between Active and Passive Immunity

When an infection attacks a person, it holds certain pathogens which cause the disease because of the antigens present in them. When antigens enter into the body, antibodies are produced against these antigens. Production of these antibodies against these antigens is called immunity.

Immunity is basically classified into two types (Innate and Adaptive immunity). Adaptive immunity has further two types which are active and passive immunity. The difference between active and passive immunity is that active immunity is that in active immunity, antibodies are produced in the body whereas, in passive immunity, antibodies are introduced into the body.

Difference Between Active and Passive Immunity

Active Immunity

It is the type of immunity in which body produces antibodies to fight against antigens. Active immunity can be produced naturally or artificially. Naturally, it is produced when the body produces antibodies in response to invasion by antigens. Artificially it is produced when attenuated antigens are introduced in a person through vaccination. These attenuated antigens don’t cause the disease but they let the body produce antibodies against them.  Vaccines are introduced in babies to save themselves from certain infections.

Passive Immunity

It is defined as the immunity which is produced by injecting antibodies directly into the body. These antibodies fight the incoming antigens. Passive immunity also has two types of active immunity. It can be produced naturally when antibodies are directly transferred from mother to fetal blood during pregnancy. Passive immunity is produced artificially by introducing immunoglobulin in the body. A person, who is bitten by a stray dog, can be given rabies immunoglobulin.

Active Vs Passive Immunity

The basic difference between active and passive immunity is their administration or introduction in the body. The body produces its own antibodies in active immunity while the antibodies are introduced into the body in passive immunity. Active immunity takes the time to show its effects by fighting the infection whereas passive immunity shows a sudden response. Active immunity stays for a long time than passive immunity because all the antibodies are utilized against infection and no antibody is left to fight more pathogens in case of passive immunity.

 Full Comparison Between Active VS. Passive Immunity – Video Tips

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